Lab Help
Hypothesis Help
When writing a hypothesis you must make a prediction and justify your prediction using scientific terms
Example:
 Hypothesis: The heat given off by the solvation of calcium chloride in a fixed amount of water, is directly proportional to the amount of calcium chloride added to the water. Since calcium chloride is an ionic compound and ionic compounds are known to separate in water in a process called solvation, and since solvation produces heat, than the more particles that dissolve, the more heat will be produced causing an increase in temperature in the water. The heat of solvation is produced via the breaking of the ionic bonds into Calcium and Chloride ions followed by the attraction of water molecules to the charged ions. The heat of solution for calcium chloride is X kJ/mol (give reference)…using various heat equations, a theoretical temperature can be calculated.
 Note that your hypothesis doesn't have to be correct (i.e. your investigation might prove it incorrect), just reasonable.
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Raw Data Help
Raw data is any value that is directly measured. Here is an example of the difference between raw data and calculated data
Let's say you want to calculate the volume of a peanut by displacement...
 Fill a graduated cylinder with water
 (RAW DATA) Record the initial level of the water
 Put the peanut in the graduated cylinder
 (RAW DATA) Record the new level of the water
 (ANALYZED DATA) Subtract the initial level from the final level to get the volume of the peanut.
What should the data table look like?
Trial  Initial Volume  Final Volume  Peanut Volume 
1  5.00 mL  5.20 mL  0.20 mL 
2  5.20 mL  5.45 mL  0.25 mL 
3  5.45 mL  5.60 mL  0.15 mL 
Average  0.20 mL 
Why is it important to write down raw data? Because if you make a mistake in your calculations and all you wrote down was the analyzed data  it is impoossible to go back later and correct your mistake.
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Calculation Help
The purpose of showing your calculations is to make it clear how a particular value was calculated. This is most important when the calculation you do is unique or when there are other methods possible.
It is not necessary to write out every single calcuation you do for an experiment. It is only necessary to show examples of the type of calculations you did.
Let's say you are calculating the density of a type of plastic and you have measured three different size pieces and have the following data:
Trial  Mass  Volume  Density 
1  5.0 g  1.0 L  5.0 g/L 
2  10.0 g  2.0 L  5.0 g/L 
3  15.0 g  3.0  5.0 g/L 
Average  5.0 g/L 
Under the calculations heading you should show a sample density calculation and a sample average calculation. Even though you did three density calculations, just show one. Your example should include data from your experiment  not just random numbers.
Calculations
Density = mass/volume = 5.0g/1.0L = 5 g/L
Average = (5.0 g/L + 5.0 g/L + 5.0 g/L)/3 = 5.0 g/L
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Percent Error Help
 Calculated density (measured by you in lab): 5.0 g/L
 Actual density (according to a book): 5.2 g/L
 Find difference = 5.0  5.2 = 0.2
 Calculate % error = 0.2/5.2 = 4%
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Conclusion Help
Answere these questions to structure your conclusion:
 What was I looking for?
 How did I look for it?
 What did I find?
 What do the results mean?
Alternatively, you can use this template. However, it is not acceptable for Honors or IB students to use this template word for word and is generally not thorough enough by itself.
 Conclusion Template
 In this lab we attempted to (answer the question / figure out why / measure / verify) (question you tried to answer)
by (describe method you chose) .
Our results (were /showed / gave) (state conclusion)
which (ageed / somewhat agreed / did not agree) with our hypothesis. This means that (what you learned about chemistry concepts from this lab) .
The problems we encounterd in this lab were (sources of error) .
We (do / do not) believe these errors significantly affected our results (and / but) we could improve our results by (list ways you could have designed/performed the lab so that these problems did not occur) .
Further questions we could investigate here are (other possible answers to the lab question) .
 For quantitative results (actual numbers) include your percent error when discussing whether or not your hypothesis was right.
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